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Full text of "An evaluation of May 1971 satellite-derived sea surface temperatures for the Southern Hemisphere / P. Krishna Rao"

NESS 69 

An Evaluation of 
May 1971 Satellite- 
Derived Sea Surface 
Temperatures for the 
Southern Hemisphere 

P. KRISHNA RAO 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 
APRIL 1974 



noaa 



NATIONAL OCEANIC AND / NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL, 

ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION / SATELLITE SERVICE 



NOAA TECHNICAL REPORTS 

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ESSA Technical Reports 

NESC 38 Angular Distribution of Solar Radiation Reflected From Clouds as Determined From TIROS IV Radi- 
ometer Measurements. I. Ruff, R. Koffler, S. Fritz, J. S. Winston, and P. K. Rao, March 1967. 
(PB-174-729) 

NESC 39 Motions in the Upper Troposphere as Revealed by Satellite Observed Cirrus Formations. H. 
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NESC 40 Cloud Measurements Using Aircraft Time-Lapse Photography. Linwood F. Whitney, Jr., and E. Paul 
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NESC 41 The SINAP Problem: Present Status and Future Prospects; Proceedings of a Conference Held at 
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NESC 42 Operational Processing of Low Resolution Infrared (LRIR) Data From ESSA Satellites. Louis 
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NESC 45 The Nature of Intermediate-Scale Cloud Spirals. Linwood F. Whitney, Jr., and Leroy D. Herman, 
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NESC 46 Monthly and Seasonal Mean Global Charts of Brightness From ESSA 3 and ESSA 5 Digitized Pic- 
tures, February 1967-February 1968. V. Ray Taylor and Jay S. Winston, November 1968. (PB-180- 
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NESC 47 A Polynomial Representation of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Transmission. William L. Smith, 
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NESC 48 Statistical Estimation of the Atmosphere's Geopotential Height Distribution From Satellite 
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NESC 50 Estimating Maximum Wind Speed of Tropical Storms From High Resolution Infrared Data. L. F. 
Hubert, A. Timchalk, and S. Fritz, May 1969. (PB-184-611) 

(Continued on inside back cover) 



a 


a 

3 



NOAA Technical Report NESS 69 

An Evaluation of May 1971 
Satellite-Derived Sea Surface 
Temperature's for the 
Southern Hemisphere 



P. KRISHNA RAO 

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES GROUP 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 
APRIL 1974 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C, 20402. 

Price 55 cents 



-*° ftT ^ 0s ^- 



UNITED STATES / NATIONAL OCEANIC AND /NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE / ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION/ SATELLITE SERVICE 
Frederick B. Dent, Secretary / Robert M. White, Administrator / David S. Johnson, Director 




CONTENTS 

Abstract 1 

1. Introduction 1 

2. Data source 2 

3. Results 2 

4. Comments on the validation of satellite- 

derived sea surface temperatures 5 

5. Summary and concluding remarks 6 

Acknowledgments 6 

References 6 

Figures 

1. Southern Hemisphere sea surface temperature anal- 

ysis derived from NOAA 1 scanning radiometer 

data for May 15, 1971 8 

2. Southern Hemisphere mean monthly sea surface tem- 

perature analysis for May 1971, derived from 

NOAA 1 scanning radiometer data 9 

3. Time-longitude section showing the brightness and 

temperature departures at 5°S derived from NOAA 1 
satellite data for May 1971 10 

4. Same as in figure 3 for 10°S 10 

5. Same as in figure 3 for 15°S 11 

6. Same as in figure 3 for 20° S 11 

7. Comparison of mean monthly sea surface temperatures 

over the Southern Pacific Ocean for May 1971 

derived from NOAA 1 scanning radiometer data ... 12 

8. Comparison of mean monthly latitudinal sea surface 

temperature profiles at 130°W and 160°W over the 
Southern Hemisphere for May 1971 13 

ii 



AN EVALUATION OF MAY 1971 SATELLITE-DERIVED 
SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES FOR THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 



P. Krishna Rao 

Environmental Sciences Group 

National Environmental Satellite Service 

NOAA, Hillcrest Heights, Md. 



ABSTRACT. An objective analysis program was used to 
derive sea surface temperature distribution over the 
Southern Hemisphere for May 1971. These observa- 
tions were obtained from the NOAA 1 satellite. The 
derived temperatures were subjected to an analysis 
program and daily sea surface temperature charts 
were generated. 

Examples of a daily and a monthly mean sea surface 
temperature chart are shown. Satellite-derived 
brightness values and sea surface temperature changes 
were used to construct time-longitude sections over 
the eastern part of the South Pacific for May 1971 
to study the variations in these two parameters. The 
sea surface temperatures derived from NOAA 1 data 
showed good agreement with conventional ship data of 
the National Marine Fisheries Service. 



1. INTRODUCTION 

Sea surface temperatures in selected regions of the oceans in both the 
Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Smith et al . 1970, Rao et al . 1972, 
Shenk and Salomonson 1972) have been derived from satellite infrared radia- 
tion (IR) measurements. In spite of system noise in both the high-resolution 
IR (HRIR) data from NIMBUS satellites and the medium- resolution IR (MRIR) 
measurements from the Improved TIROS Operational Satellite (ITOS) and NOAA 1 
satellite, sea surface temperatures could be derived with an absolute accu- 
racy of 2°C or better. For most of the studies the information used was 
obtained in one infrared window channel, while for some other studies multi- 
channel information was used (Smith and Rao 1972, Shenk and Salomonson 1972) 
to minimize the influence of clouds on the surface temperature determination. 
All the above studies cited showed the feasibility of obtaining sea surface 
temperatures under relatively cloud-free conditions and the procedures used 
for these studies generally were objective. 

Operational environmental satellites now in orbit carry HRIR instruments 
and Very High Resolution Radiometers (VHRR) primarily designed for mapping 
the cloud cover by day and by night. The information obtained from these 
radiometers has shown that it is feasible to detect and monitor oceanic 



features such as thermal fronts, current boundaries, meanders and eddies, at 
least under relatively cloud-free conditions. When satellite radiation data 
over long periods of time become available, it will be possible to study the 
temporal and spatial variations of sea surface temperatures over many regions. 
This study shows an example of mean monthly sea surface temperature distribu- 
tion in the Southern Hemisphere derived from satellite radiation data for 
May 1971. Temperature changes over the eastern part of the South Pacific 
Ocean for this period are also discussed and comparisons are made with con- 
ventional data. 

2. DATA SOURCE 

Data used in this study were obtained from the NOAA 1 satellite launched 
in December 1970. NOAA satellites are operational environmental satellites 
and were formerly known as the Improved TIROS Operational Satellites (ITOS); 
a full description of the system is given in the ITOS project report (God- 
dard Space Flight Center 1970). In brief, the satellite is a three-axis 
stabilized, Earth-oriented spacecraft designed to provide complete daily day 
and night coverage of the globe. It is a polar-orbiting satellite with an 
altitude of approximately 1500 km and carries two dual channel radiometers. 
One of the channels measures the radiation emitted from Earth and its atmo- 
sphere in the 10.5-12.5 ym region. The instantaneous field-of-view of the 
instrument results in a viewed spot at the earth's surface 8 km in diameter 
at the nadir. The global measurements are stored in a tape recorder on the 
satellite and are transmitted to the ground for computer processing. 

The infrared (IR) data obtained from the satellite are corrected for ab- 
sorption by water vapor in this spectral interval. The corrections vary with 
the viewing angle of observation, the atmospheric water vapor content, and 
the cloud conditions. Data presented in this paper have been corrected for 
atmospheric attenuation using a method developed by Smith et al . (1970). 

Sea surface temperature estimates were derived from the NOAA 1 IR measure- 
ments by using the histogram method developed by Smith et al . (1970). In 
this method a large number of observations over an area larger than that 
covered by most clouds is examined; by using the empirical rule mentioned in 
the above reference, sea surface temperature can be derived over most areas 
that are relatively cloud free. The method is objective and can be imple- 
mented by means of a digital computer. The derived sea surface temperatures 
were analyzed by the objective method developed by Holl et al . (1971) to pro- 
duce the complete sea surface temperature analyses over the Southern Hemi- 
sphere used in the present study. 

3. RESULTS 

In studies relating to global or hemispheric distributions of sea surface 
temperature, a grid developed by the National Meteorological Center (NMC) is 
used. It consists of 64 x 64 squares over a polar stereographic projection 
of each hemisphere; the size of each grid square is approximately 2.5° x 2.5° 
(latitude-longitude) at mid-latitudes. In each grid square, approximately 
1,024 satellite IR observations per observation time are used to define a 
temperature based on the objective technique. Temperatures cannot be 



obtained over some areas because of persistent cloud cover; to a certain 
extent, the effects of extensive cloud cover can be overcome by the objective 
analysis technique referred to earlier. 

The sea surface temperature distribution obtained over the Southern Hemi- 
sphere for May 15, 1971 is shown in figure 1; the isotherms are drawn at 2°C 
intervals. The strong thermal gradient at mid- latitudes is in good agree- 
ment with climatology. The warm and cold current regions along the coasts 
of South America and South Africa, and the warm regions along the Australian 
Coast are in reasonable agreement with historical observations over these 
areas. Some centers of low temperatures in the tropical latitudes disagree 
with the climatological values; this discrepancy can be attributed to cloud 
contamination of the satellite IR observations. Piatt (1972) compared the 
satellite-derived temperatures over a 3-day period with the sea surface 
temperatures prepared by the Bureau of Meteorology in Australia and found the 
differences between satellite values and ship temperatures to be between 1° 
and 2°C. Similar differences have been noted earlier by Smith et al . (1970) 
and Rao et al . (1972). 

A mean monthly Southern Hemisphere sea surface temperature chart for May 
1971 was produced using the daily charts. The daily values at each grid 
point were averaged to obtain the mean monthly value. Figure 2 shows the 
mean monthly sea surface temperature obtained from NOAA 1 scanning radiometer 
infrared (SRIR) data; this is the first such map known to have been obtained 
by using satellite IR data exclusively. Even in this average monthly chart, 
the warm and cold regions along the coasts of South America, Africa, and 
Australia are noticeable. It is possible that the influence of clouds on the 
satellite observations might not have been removed completely, so some of the 
low -temperature areas in the tropics may be attributed to cloudiness. Mean 
monthly sea surface temperatures from this map will be compared with inde- 
pendent data and discussed later. 

Time- longitude sections prepared from the daily NOAA 1 sea surface tempera- 
ture charts for 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°S are shown in figures 3-6. The daily 
charts show interesting temperature departures over the eastern South Pacific; 
the time- longitude sections portray some of these departures. Also shown in 
figures 3-6 are digitized brightness values for the corresponding period 
obtained from NOAA 1 satellite vidicon information. These relative bright- 
ness values are given on a scale of 1 to 10. The contours are drawn at inter- 
vals of 1, and brightness values greater than 2 are shaded to indicate gener- 
ally cloudy conditions. All the time sections represent a narrow longitude 
region between 90° and 120°W. Temperature departures rather than actual tem- 
peratures are given for each day at these locations. These departures are 
the daily departures from the mean monthly value at that longitude. Shaded 
areas indicate a positive temperature departure. In all these figures the 
emphasis is on the trend in the temperature departures rather than the abso- 
lute magnitude of the departure. No attempt will be made to relate the 
brightness variations to observed temperature departures. The purpose of 
providing the corresponding brightness is to show that the influence of 
clouds in the determination of sea surface temperatures has been minimized. 
Lack of correlation between the two fields is an indication that the derived 
temperatures represent relatively cloud-free conditions. 



Figure 5 shows the brightness distribution and sea surface temperature 
departures at 5°S. The brightness distribution during the first half of 
May shows a striped pattern, indicating cloudiness associated with weak 
tropical disturbances having a period of 2 to 3 days moving through the 
region. No such brightness pattern appears during the latter half of May. 
Surface temperature departures for the same period do not exhibit any par- 
ticular pattern except a general warming trend during the early part of May 
and again from May 18 to 30. 

Brightness distribution and sea surface temperature departures at 10°S, 
shown in figure 4, differ from those at 5°S. Noticeable cloudiness existed 
up to May 19 between 90° and 100°W, and scattered cloud conditions prevailed 
at other locations. The temperature departures show some cooling until 
May 18, and relative warming during the rest of the period. The region of 
warming is almost identical to the one shown at 5°S. 

Figure 5 shows cloud brightness distribution and sea surface temperature 
departures at 15°S. Cloudiness seems to have persisted except for the last 
5 days of the period. Sea surface temperature departures show two periods 
of relative warming, one before May 14 and the other after May 20. The 
period between May 14 and 20 shows relative cooling, the cooling first taking 
place at 90°W and progressing westward with time. Similar temperature depar- 
tures are also shown in figure 6, at 20°S, where the relative cooling starts 
about May 15 at 90°W and seems to progress westward with time. The bright- 
ness data for 20°S show only a few cloudy periods compared with 15°S. 

Figure 7 shows a comparison of mean monthly sea surface temperatures ob- 
tained from satellite IR data with those published by the National Marine 
Fisheries Service (1971) (NMFS) . Between 100°W and 180°W there is good 
agreement between both sets of data, but between 100°W and the coast of South 
America there is a wide discrepancy. Because the NMFS analysis there is 
based on very sparse ship data, it probably does not correspond to the actual 
distribution. The satellite-derived sea surface temperature distribution 
shows a cool tongue of water extending from 30° to 10°S along the South Amer- 
ican Coast. Since there is good agreement where ship data are plentiful, 
perhaps more reliance can be placed on the satellite temperatures where ship 
data are missing as in this case. 

Another way to validate the satellite-derived sea surface temperatures is 
to construct latitudinal profiles and compare them with independent sets of 
data. One such comparison is shown in figure 8. Two profiles were construc- 
ted: one along 160°W and the other along 130°W. All the data are for the 
month of May 1971 except Wyrtki's (1964), which is climatology for May. The 
conventional data are profiles derived from the May 1971 sea surface tempera- 
ture chart produced by the National Marine Fisheries Service. The conven- 
tional data coverage extends from the Equator to 30°S, but Wyrtki's data 
extend to 40°S. The overall agreement is good at both longitudes, although 
there is 2° to 3°C difference between Wyrtki's values and the satellite data 
at 30° and 35°S. In the equatorial region the satellite profiles show lower 
temperatures than the other data. The gradients shown between 25° and 40°S 
are in good agreement. At least, by making comparisons of this kind whenever 
independent sets of data are available, the use of satellite observations can 



be extended to data-sparse areas where conventional information is almost 
nonexistent. 

4. COMMENTS ON THE VALIDATION OF SATELLITE-DERIVED 
SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES 

During the past few years a number of attempts have been made to derive 
sea surface temperatures from satellite window (8-12 urn) radiation data. 
Many of the studies (Smith et al. 1970, Rao et al . 1972) have shown that the 
root mean square (RMS) differences between the sea surface temperatures 
obtained from ship reports and those from satellites varied between 1.5° and 
2.0°C. Similarly, a number of aircraft studies (Pickett 1966, Shaw and Irbe 
1972) performed in the United States and Canada to determine the sea surface 
temperatures by remote sensing show results similar to the satellite studies, 
Table 1 summarizes some of the findings. The range of RMS differences 

Table 1 . --Comparison of root mean square (RMS) differences in 
in the determination of sea surface temperatures from various 
satellite and aircraft radiation data. 



RMS Difference °C 



Nimbus II HRIR 

ITOS SRIR 

NOAA 1 (S. Hemisphere) 
(with Australian data) 



1966 


1.7 


1970 


1.8 


1971 


1.6 



AT = (T , . - T _ = 0.5°C 
ship sat) 

NOAA 2 (N. Hemisphere) 1973 1.6 



AT = T , . - T J = 0.7°C 
ship sat 



Canadian studies 1.7 

aircraft vs. ships 

U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Pickett) 



AT = (T , . - T ADT ) = 1°C 
ship ART' 



(range 0.3°C - 1.8°C) 



between the ship measurements and the remotely sensed values is about 1.5° to 
2.0°C, the ship reports being higher by 0.5° to 1.0°C. Some of this varia- 
bility could be due to the different techniques used in measuring tempera- 
tures from ships and part could be attributed to the uncertainties in the 



atmospheric attenuation corrections used in this and the other studies (Rao 
et al . 1972, Maul and Sidran 1973). The attenuation corrections based on 
the present knowledge about atmospheric water vapor transmission and the 
effects of other particulates have not been considered. James and Fox (1972) 
have analyzed large amounts of extensive sea surface temperature data from 
ship reports and showed large variabilities in the data. They emphasized 
the need for adopting a standard technique to measure and define sea surface 
temperature. Until a well-defined standard is established, satellite- 
derived sea surface temperatures cannot be compared strictly with all the 
various types of ship reports (bucket temperatures, intake temperatures, 
etc.). 

5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS 

It has been shown that one can objectively derive sea surface temperatures 
from satellite IR information over large areas. The feasibility of gener- 
ating a mean monthly sea surface temperature chart using only the satellite 
information has also been demonstrated. 

A comparison between sea surface temperature analyses obtained from satel- 
lite IR data and an analysis based on conventional ship data showed good 
agreement. From recent comparisons of ship, aircraft, and satellite data, 
one can conclude that with the present state of the art it is possible to 
objectively derive sea surface temperatures from satellite IR data with an 
absolute accuracy of 1° to 2°C. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Julia Hart and Leonard Hatton for the analyses of the data and for 
the drafting of figures and Dr. E. P. McClain for his critical review of the 
manuscript. 

REFERENCES 

Goddard Space Flight Center, ITOS , National Aeronautics and Space Administra- 
tion, Greenbelt, Md. , 1970, 28 pp. 

Holl, M. M., Mendenhall, B. R. , and Tilden, C. E., "Technical Developments 
for Operational Sea Surface Temperature Analysis With Capability for Satel- 
lite Data Input," Prepared for Naval Weapons Engineering Support Activity 
Detachment (FAMOS) , 3737 Branch Avenue, Room 307, Hillcrest Heights, Md., 
20031, under Contract No. N62306-70-C-0334, Sept. 1971, 73 pp. 

James, R. W., and Fox, P. T. , "Comparative Sea-Surface Temperature Measure- 
ments," WMO Reports on Marine Science Affairs, Report No. 5, WMO No. 336, 
Secretariat of World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 
1972, 27 pp. 

Maul, George A., and Sidran, Miriam, "Atmospheric Effects on Ocean Surface 
Temperature Sensing From the NOAA Satellite Scanning Radiometer," Journal 
of Geophysical Research , Vol. 78, No. 12, 1973, pp. 1909-1916. 



National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce, Fishing 
Information , Fishery Oceanography Center, LaJolla, Calif., May 1971. 24 pp. 

Pickett, R. L., "Accuracy of an Airborne Infrared Radiation Thermometer," 
Informal Report 0-1-66, Naval Oceanographic Office, Suitland, Md. , 1966, 
10 pp. 

Piatt, C. M. R., CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Physics, Aspendale, Victoria, 
Australia, private communication, 1972. 

Rao, P. K., Smith, W. L., and Koffler, R. , "Global Sea-Surface Temperature 
Distribution Determined From an Environmental Satellite," Monthly Weather 
Review , Vol. 100, No. 1, Jan. 1972, pp. 10-14. 

Shaw, R. W., and Irbe, J. C, "Environmental Adjustments for the Airborne 
Radiation Thermometer Measuring Water Surface Temperature," Water Resources 
Research , Vol. 8, No. 5, Oct. 1972, pp. 1214-1225. 

Shenk, W. E., and Salomonson, V. V., "A Multispectral Technique to Determine 
Sea Surface Temperature Using Nimbus 2 Data," Journal of Physical Oceanog- 
raphy , Vol. 2, April 1972, pp. 157-167. 

Smith, W. L., Rao, P. K. , Koffler, R., and Curtis, W. R. , "The Determination 
of Sea-Surface Temperature From Satellite High Resolution Infrared Window 
Radiation Measurements," Monthly Weather Review , Vol. 98, No. 8, Aug. 1970, 
pp. 604-611. 

Smith, W. L., and Rao, P. K., "The Determination of Surface Temperature From 
Satellite "Window" Radiation Measurements," Proceedings of the Fifth 
Symposium on Temperature, Washington, D.C., June 21-24, 1971 , Instrument 
Society of America, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1972, pp. 2251-2257. 

Wyrtki, Klaus, "The Thermal Structure of the Eastern Pacific Ocean," 

Deutschen Hydrographischen Zeitschrift, Erganzungsheft , Reihe A(8), No. 6, 
Deutsche Hydrographische Institut, Hamburg, 1964, 84 pp. 



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SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE (5°S'MAY 1971 



BRIGHTNESS 

I . I I LJ I l l 



SFC TEMP CHANGES 
J I 1_ 




100 90 120 110 

LONGITUDE (°W) 



Figure 3. --Time- longitude section showing ihe brightness and temperature 
departures at 5°S derived from N0AA 1 satellite data for May 1971. 
Brightness units vary from to 9; temperature departures are in degrees C. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE (10°S) MAY 1971 

BRIGHTNESS SFC TEMP CHANGES 

1- 




I II I 
100 90 



LONGITUDE (°W) 



Figure 4. — Same as in figure 3 for 10°S. 



11 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE (15"S) MAY 197I 



BRIGHTNESS 

J LJ I I L_ 



SFC TEMP CHANGES 




Figure 5. --Same as in figure 3 for 15°S. 



SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE (20 S) MAY 1971 

SFC TEMP. CHANGES 

J I ill 



BRIGHTNESS 

-1 — I — L_l 1.1,1 




100 90 



LONGITUDE (°W) 



Figure 6. — Same as in figure 3 for 20° S, 



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13 



ALONG 160W 




Figure 8. — Comparison of mean monthly latitudinal sea surface temperature 
profiles at 130° W and 160° W over the Southern Hemisphere for May 1971, 
Satellite observations were obtained from NOAA 1 scanning radiometer 
data and conventional data from the National Marine Fisheries Service. 



(Continued from inside front cover) 

NESC 51 Application of Meteorological Satellite Data in Analysis and Forecasting. Ralph K. Anderson, 
Jerome P. Ashman, Fred Bittner, Golden R. Farr, Edward W. Ferguson, Vincent J. Oliver, and 
Arthur H. Smith, September 1969. Price $1.75 (AD-697-033) Supplement price $0.65 (AD-740- 
, 017) 

NESC 52 Data Reduction Processes for Spinning Flat-Plate Satellite-Borne Radiometers. Torrence H. 
MacDonald, July 1970. Price $0.50 (COM-71-00132) 

NESC 53 Archiving and Climatological Applications of Meteorological Satellite Data. John A. Leese, 
Arthur L. Booth, and Frederick A. Godshall, July 1970. Price $1.25 (COM-71-00076) 

NESC 54 Estimating Cloud Amount and Height From Satellite Infrared Radiation Data. P. Krishna Rao, 
July 1970. Price $0.25 (PB-194-685) 

NESC 56 Time-Longitude Sections of Tropical Cloudiness (December 1966-November 1967). J. M. Wallace, 
July 1970. Price $0.50 (COM-71-00131) 

NOAA Technical Reports 

NESS 55 The Use of Satellite-Observed Cloud Patterns in Northern Hemisphere 500-mb Numerical Analysis. 
Roland E. Nagle and Christopher M. Hayden, April 1971. Price $0.55 (COM-73-50262) 

NESS 57 Table of Scattering Function of Infrared Radiation for Hater Clouds. Giichi Yamamoto, 
Masayuki Tanaka, and Shoji Asano, April 1971. Price $1.00 (COM-71-50312) 

NESS 58 The Airborne ITPR Brassboard Experiment. W. L. Smith, D. T. Hilleary, E. C. Baldwin, W. Jacob, 
H. Jacobowitz, G. Nelson, S. Soules, and D. Q. Wark, March 1972. Price $1.25 (COM-72-10557) 

NESS 59 Temperature Sounding From Satellites. S. Fritz, D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, W. L. Smith, H. 
Jacobowitz, D. T. Hilleary, and J. C. Alishouse, July 1972. Price $0.55 (C0M-72-50963) 

NESS 60 Satellite Measurements of Aerosol Backscattered Radiation From the Nimbus F Earth Radiation Ex- 
periment. H. Jacobowitz, W. L. Smith, and A. J. Drummond, August 1972. Price $0.25 (COM-72- 
51031) 

NESS 61 The Measurement of Atmospheric Transmittance From Sun and Sky With an Infrared Vertical 
Sounder. W. L. Smith and H. B. Howell, September 1972. Price $0.30 (COM-73-50020) 

NESS 62 Proposed Calibration Target for the Visible Channel of a Satellite Radiometer. K. L. Coulson 
and H. Jacobowitz, October 1972. Price $0.35 (COM-73-10143) 

NESS 63 Verification of Operational SIRS B Temperature Retrievals. Harold J. Brodrick and Christopher 
M. Hayden, December 1972. Price $0.55 (COM-73-50279) 

NESS 64 Radiometric Techniques for Observing the Atmosphere From Aircraft. William L. Smith and Warren 
J. Jacob. January 1973. Price $0.35 (COM-73-50376) 

NESS 65 Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft. L. M. McMillin, D. Q. Wark, J.M. Siomkajlo, 
P. G. Abel, A. Werbowetzki, L. A. Lauritson, J. A. Pritchard, D. S. Crosby, H. M. Woolf, R. C. 
Luebbe, M. P. Weinreb, H. E. Fleming, F. E. Bittner, and C. M. Hayden, September 1973. (COM- 
73-50936/6AS) 

NESS 66 Effects of Aerosols on the Determination of the Temperature of the Earth's Surface From Radi- 
ance fleasurements at 11.2 urn. H. Jacobowitz and K. L. Coulson, September 1973. (COM-74-50013) 

NESS 67 Vertical Resolution of Temperature Profiles for High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder 
(HIRS). Y. M. Chen, H. M. Woolf, and W. L. Smith, January 1974. (COM-74-50230) 

NESS 68 Dependence of Antenna Temperature on the Polarization of Emitted Radiation for a Scanning Mi- 
crowave Radiometer. Norman C. Grody, January 1974. 



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